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The University of Maine    
 
    
 
  Sep 26, 2017
 
2017-2018 Undergraduate Catalog

Biology


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OVERVIEW OF DEGREE REQUIREMENTS

Minimum number of credits required to graduate: 120

Minimum Cumulative GPA required to graduate: 2.0

Minimum Grade requirements for courses to count toward major: A C or higher is required in BIO 100 and BIO 200.

Other GPA requirements to graduate: A minimum cumulative GPA of 2.0 in all courses in Biological Sciences Areas I-V, affiliated science, and math courses combined.

Required Course(s) for fulfilling Capstone Experience: BIO 388 or BIO 392 or BIO 402 or BIO 431 or BIO 438 or BIO 450 or BIO 463 or HON 499* or BIO 480 and BIO 483. See concentration curricula for specific requirements.

*The thesis topic must be in Biology and the thesis advisor should be in the School of Biology and Ecology.

Contact Information:  Ann Dieffenbacher-Krall, Undergraduate Coordinator, 100 Murray Hall, (207)581-2540, annd@maine.edu


A major in biology allows students to explore various aspects of our natural world. Tremendous advances in biotechnology, medicine, environmental studies and related areas make biology an important and fascinating field of study. Biology is a broad field that seeks to understand living creatures - from animals and plants to fungi and microbes. Biologists help find cures for diseases, become doctors, save endangered species and more. Biology-related career fields include human and veterinary medicine, scientific research and development, teaching at the high school and college levels, environmental monitoring and regulation at state and federal levels, and private design and consulting. Biology majors study how living organisms function at the cellular, tissue, organ, and organismal levels.  A diverse set of courses allows students to learn evolutionary principles, biodiversity, and how organisms interact with each other and with their physical environment. Biology majors are exposed to a variety of research opportunities. Research in the field of biology aims to increase knowledge about living organisms in order to combat problems we face in fields such as medicine, agriculture, and ecology.

Graduates of our Biology program pursue various careers, depending on their interest, level of educational attainment, and subsequent professional education. Among the more typical career areas are human and veterinary medicine, scientific research and development, teaching at the high-school and college levels, environmental monitoring and regulation at state and federal levels, and private design and consulting.

Biology offers students many choices and allows them to tailor their programs to their interests. Students can choose from a wide range of courses covering all major areas of biology including cells and molecules, genetics and development, physiology, anatomy, evolution and biodiversity, and ecology and behavior. Each student works with an academic advisor in the faculty to develop a curriculum that best meets the student’s goals and allows for exploration or specialization as desired. Students in their third and fourth years of study, who intend to pursue post-baccalaureate studies leading to advanced degrees, are strongly encouraged to include independent research under the guidance of a faculty member in their programs.

Bachelor of Science or Bachelor of Arts

The School of Biology and Ecology offers both B.S. and B.A. degrees in Biology.  Both degrees provide a strong background in biological sciences.  They have the same requirements in biological sciences and differ only in the level of chemistry, mathematics, and physics required. The B.S. requires more in depth study of chemistry, math, and physics while the B.A. requires more social sciences and humanities. The B.S. provides preparation for the health professions and graduate study while the B.A. ensures a broad liberal arts education and allows more flexibility for minors and double majors.

Biology B.S.

Biology B.A.

Biology B.S.


The B.S. degree in Biology is offered by the School of Biology and Ecology.  For information about areas of specialization and for an overview of our facilities, cooperative programs, and list of faculty in the School of Biology and Ecology, see our web site, https://sbe.umaine.edu.

Students choosing Biology as a second major must complete the second major by selecting courses in Areas I-V that are not being used to satisfy the requirements of their first major.

Students majoring in Biology are not eligible for a minor or second major in Botany or Zoology because of extensive overlap in the requirements for these degrees.

Students majoring in Biology must complete an assessment exit exam in their last semester prior to graduating.

Students majoring in Biology must earn a score of 4 or 5 in order to receive advanced placement credit for BIO 100.

Students must complete a minimum of 12 credits originating from the University of Maine in Biological Sciences Areas I-V.

Students wishing to transfer from other institutions or from another program within the University of Maine must have completed BIO 100: Basic Biology with a grade of C or better or have a cumulative GPA of 2.0 or better.

Biology Club

Students majoring in Biology, Botany, Zoology, and Medical Laboratory Sciences(Medical Technology) are encouraged to join the Biology Club, a student organization that promotes an interest in the biological sciences and in biological research with invited speakers, panel discussions, debates, trips, social functions, and service projects. The club also supports a local chapter of the national honor society, Beta Beta Beta.

Concentrations in the B.S. Degree in Biology

Optional concentrations are available in:

  • Pre-medical Studies
  • Ecology

These concentrations are described in detail following the suggested sequence of courses for the B.S. in Biology

Accelerated Binary Degree Programs, including the B.S. Degree in Biology

The University of Maine and the University of New England College of Osteopathic Medicine (UNECOM), New England College of Optometry (NECO) and Logan College of Chiropractic (LCC) cooperate in providing accelerated undergraduate curricula leading to consideration for early admission to the cooperating colleges. Students complete three years at the University of Maine and are awarded the B.S. in Biology upon the successful completion of the first year curriculum at UNECOM, NECO, or LCC. Contact the Office of Health Professions (207) 581-2587 for complete program details and a curriculum for the first three years.

Combined B.S. and M.S. degrees in Botany, Entomology, or Zoology

These Four Plus programs allow highly dedicated students to earn both the B.S. and the M.S. degrees in five to six years. This allows the student to save time and reduces the cost of the M.S. degree. See our web site for details, https://sbe.umaine.edu.

Basic Biological Sciences for the B.S. in Biology


Note: BIO 208 Anatomy and Physiology, BIO 222 Biology: The Living Science, and BIO 223 Biology: The Living Science Laboratory will not count towards the major for students majoring in Biology.

Biological Sciences Areas I-V for the B.S. in Biology


The following are minimum requirements for these 5 areas: 24 credits, 3 credits/area, four laboratory (L) courses and at least one animal (A) course and at least one plant (P) course from Areas III - V.

If BIO 438, BIO 450, BIO 463, or BIO 480 and 483 is taken as a capstone, it can satisfy the area in which it is listed and can count as a laboratory course (if labeled L) but cannot count towards the 24 credits required in Areas I-V.

If BIO 387 or 391 are taken, up to 3 credits can be used towards the 24 total credits required, but not in a specified area unless previously approved by the Undergraduate Coordinator.

Area I. Cell and Molecular Biology


If only one course is selected from this area, it must be BMB 280 or BIO 480

Area IV: Biodiversity and Evolution


Area V: Ecology and Behavior


If only one course is selected from this area, it must be BIO 319, SMS 300, or WLE 200, only one of which may be taken for degree credit.

Affiliated Sciences and Math for the B.S. in Biology


To complete your B.S. in Biology you must take courses in Chemistry, Mathematics, and Physics.  Below we have outlined your options for completing each requirement.

Organic Chemistry Option 1


Organic Chemistry Option 2


Organic Chemistry Option 3


Mathematics


Physics Option 1


Courses in Suggested Sequence for the B.S. in Biology


First Year - First Semester


First Year - Second Semester


Second Year - First Semester


Second Year - Second Semester


Third Year - First Semester


  • PHY 111 - General Physics I Credits: 4 (See Footnote 4)
  • General Education Requirement or Elective Credits: 6
  • Biological Sciences Area ChoiceCredits: 5-7 (See Footnote 2)

Third Year - Second Semester


  • PHY 112 - General Physics II Credits: 4 (See Footnote 4)
  • General Education Requirement or Elective Credits: 6-9
  • Biological Sciences Area ChoiceCredits: 3-4 (See Footnote 2)

Fourth Year - First Semester


  • Biological Sciences Area Choice Credits: 4 (See Footnote 2)
  • Capstone or Elective Credits: 3 (See Footnote 5)
  • General Education Requirements or Electives Credits: 6-9

Fourth Year - Second Semester


  • Biological Sciences Area Choice Credits: 4-9 (See Footnote 2)
  • Elective or Capstone Credits: 3 (See Footnote 5)
  • General Education Requirements or Electives Credits: 6-9

Footnotes


1 See the General Education requirements for all students at the University. If BIO 400 (Biological Sciences Writing Intensive) is used to satisfy the General Education Writing Intensive in the major requirement, then it must be taken in conjunction with a selected upper-level BIO course (see listings in Schedule of Classes), usually during the third or fourth year.
2 See above lists of courses in the five Biological Sciences Areas and follow requirements for total number of credits, number of credits per area, number of courses with laboratories (L), and number of animal (A) and plant (P) courses in areas III-V.
3 Alternatively, students may take BMB 221/222 and BMB 322/323, OR CHY 251/253 and BMB 322/323.
4 Alternatively, students may take PHY 121 and 122.
5 The General Education capstone experience may be completed with BIO 388, 392, 402, 431, 438, 450, 463, or HON 499, or both BIO 480 and 483.

Concentration in Ecology


This concentration is intended for students interested in exposure to ecological principles within the context of a rigorous biological sciences curriculum. Students in this concentration must meet all of the requirements for the Biology B.S. degree.  The concentration also includes WLE 220 Introduction to Statistical Ecology and a requirement for a course on environmental influences. A total of 29-35 credits are required to complete the concentration depending on the selections made for each of the requirements.

Specific requirements:

1. Affiliated Sciences and Math


2. Area I. Cell and Molecular Biology


Free choice among Area I courses in the Biology curriculum. Credits: 3-4

3. Area II. Genetics


Free choice among Area II courses in the Biology curriculum. Credits: 3-5

4. Area III. Physiology


Free choice among Area III courses in the Biology curriculum. Credits: 3

5. Area IV. Biodiversity


Bio 465 Evolution is required plus 3 additional credits chosen from Area IV courses in the Biology curriculum. Credits: 6-7

7. Primary and Secondary Producers


Choose at least one course labeled A and one labeled P from Areas I-V in the Biology curriculum.  These courses can also satisfy requirements in Areas I-V for the basic Biology major and so do not add to the number of credits needed beyond the basic Biology major.

9. Field Experience


Choose at least one course from this list.  This course can also satisfy one of the areas above.

10. Capstone


Choose one of these courses:

11. Writing Requirement (students in the Honors program are exempt)


One course required. Choose from the following courses*:

Concentration in Pre-medical Studies


This concentration is intended for students preparing for a career in medicine or one of the other health professions (dentistry, optometry, osteopathy, physician assistant, pharmacy, podiatry, veterinary medicine and other health-related fields). Students completing this concentration will be fully prepared for advanced studies in these fields. In addition to the required science and mathematics courses, the concentration also includes general education courses that are desired by many medical schools. The concentration allows for considerable choice in courses and provides valuable guidance to students and their advisors with regard to course selection in their major and in general education requirements.

Requirements for the concentration

Students in the pre-medical studies concentration must meet all of the requirements for the BIO-BS.

Specific requirements:

Affiliated Sciences and Math


Choose CHY 251-254 to meet the organic chemistry requirement.

Area I. Cell and molecular biology


Choose at least one of the following courses:
If only one course is chosen, it must be BMB 280 or BIO 480.

Area IV. Biodiversity


Choose at least one of these courses:

Area V. Ecology and Behavior


Free choice among the Area V courses in the BIO-BS curriculum.

Other required courses


Recommended courses


Notes


a. Inclusion of BIO 480, Cell Biology, is highly recommended. This course can only count in one area.

b. Physician assistant and pharmacy schools require two semesters of anatomy and physiology. This requirement can be met by combining BIO 208, Anatomy and Physiology, and BIO 377, 378 Medical physiology and lab OR by combining BIO 335, Human Anatomy, and BIO 377, 378 Medical physiology and lab. Check with the Health Professions Specialist for details of the program you want to pursue.

c. Students pursuing this concentration may want to consider a minor in Neuroscience, Chemistry, Psychology, or Business.

Biology B.A.


The B.A. degree in Biology is offered by the School of Biology and Ecology. For information about areas of research and for an overview of our facilities, cooperative programs, and list of faculty in the School of Biology and Ecology, see our web site www.sbe.umaine.edu/

Students choosing Biology as a second major must complete the second major by selecting courses in Areas I-V that are not being used to satisfy the requirements of their first major.

Students majoring in Biology are not eligible for a minor or second major in Botany or Zoology because of extensive overlap in the requirements for these degrees.

Students majoring in Biology must complete an assessment exit exam in their last semester prior to graduating.

Students majoring in Biology must earn a score of 4 or 5 in order to receive advanced placement credit for BIO 100.

Students must complete a minimum of 12 credits originating from the University of Maine in Biological Sciences Areas I-V.

Students wishing to transfer from other institutions or from another program within the University of Maine must have completed BIO 100: Basic Biology with a grade of C or better or have a cumulative GPA of 2.0 or better.

Optional Concentration in the B.A. degree in Biology

Students may complete the basic B.A. in Biology or they may add the optional Ecology Concentration. This concentration is described in detail following the suggested sequence of courses for the B.A. in Biology.

Biology Club
Students majoring in Biology, Botany, Zoology, and Medical Laboratory Sciences (Medical Technology) are encouraged to join the Biology Club, a student organization that promotes an interest in the biological sciences and in biological research with invited speakers, panel discussions, debates, trips, social functions, and service projects. The club also supports a local chapter of the national honor society, Beta Beta Beta.

Basic Biological Sciences for the B.A. in Biology


Note: BIO 208, Anatomy and Physiology, BIO 222 Biology: The Living Science and BIO 223 Biology: The Living Science Laboratory, will not count towards the major for students majoring in Biology.

Biological Sciences Areas I-V


The following are minimum requirements for these 5 areas: 24 credits, 3 credits/area, four laboratory (L) courses, at least one animal (A) course, and at least one plant (P) course from Areas III - V.

If BIO 438, 450, BIO 463, or BIO 480 and BIO 483 is taken as a capstone, it can satisfy the area in which it is listed and can count as a laboratory course (if labeled L) but cannot count towards the 24 credits required in Areas I-V.

If BIO 387 or 391 are taken, up to 3 credits can be used towards the 24 total credits required, but not in a specified area.

I. Cell and Molecular Biology


If only one course is selected from this area, it must be BMB 280 or BIO 480.

IV. Biodiversity and Evolution


V. Ecology and Behavior


If only one course is selected from this area, it must be BIO 319, SMS 300, or WLE 200, only one of which may be taken for degree credit.

Affiliated Sciences and Math for the B.A. in Biology


To complete your B.A. in Biology you must take courses in Chemistry, Mathematics, and Physics.  Below we have outlined your options for completing each requirement.

Organic Chemistry Option 1


Organic Chemistry Option 2


Organic Chemistry Option 3


Mathematics


Physics Option 1


Physics Option 2


Other Requirements


Students are required to develop an enriched international perspective. This may be done by (1) establishing proficiency in a foreign language at the intermediate level, (2) completing at least one semester in a University of Maine approved foreign exchange program, or (3) completing nine credits in General Education courses in Cultural Diversity and International Perspectives. In addition, the College of Natural Sciences, Forestry and Agriculture requires 27 credits of General Education courses in Human Values and Social Context for the B.A. and at least 12 of those credits must be at the 200 level or above.

Courses in Suggested Sequence for the B.A. in Biology


First Year - First Semester


First Year - Second Semester


Second Year - First Semester


Second Year - Second Semester


  • Biological Sciences Area Choice Credits: 3-5 (See Footnote 2)
  • International Perspective Credits: 3 (See Footnote 5)
  • General Education Requirement for Elective Credits: 6-9

Third Year - First Semester


  • PHY 105 - Descriptive Physics Credits: 4 (See Footnote 6)
  • Biological Sciences Area Choice Credits: 5-7 (See Footnote 2)
  • General Education Requirement or Elective Credits: 6

Third Year - Second Semester


  • General Education Requirement or Elective Credits: 3-12
  • Biological Sciences Area Choice Credits: 3-4 (See Footnote 2)

Fourth Year - First Semester


  • Biological Sciences Area Choice Credits: 3-4 (See Footnote 2)
  • Capstone Credits: 3 (See Footnote 7)
  • General Education Requirements or Electives Credits: 7-10

Fourth Year - Second Semester


  • Biological Sciences Area Choice Credits: 3-10 (See Footnote 2)
  • General Education Requirements or Electives Credits: 4-12

Footnotes


1 See the General Education requirements for all students at the University. If BIO 400 (Biological Sciences Writing Intensive) is used to satisfy the General Education Writing Intensive in the major requirement, then it must be taken in conjunction with a selected upper-level BIO course (see listings in Schedule of Classes), usually during the third or fourth year.
2 See above lists of courses in the five Biological Sciences Areas and follow requirements for total number of credits, number of credits per area, number of courses with laboratories (L), and number of animal (A) and plant (P) courses in areas III-V.
3 Alternatively, students may take CHY 251/253 and BMB 322/323 or CHY 251/253 and CHY 252/254.
4 Alternatively, students may take MAT 126.
5 See Other Requirements above for ways to satisfy this requirement for the B.A. degree.
6 Alternatively, students may take PHY 111 and 112.
7 The General Education capstone experience may be completed with BIO 388, 392, 402, 431, 438, 450, 463, or HON 499, or both BIO 480 and 483.

Concentration in Ecology


This concentration is intended for students interested in exposure to ecological principles within the context of a rigorous biological sciences curriculum. Students in this concentration must meet all of the requirements for the Biology B.A. degree.  The concentration also includes WLE 220 Introduction to Statistical Ecology and a requirement for a course on environmental influences. A total of 29-35 credits are required to complete the concentration depending on the selections made for each of the requirements.

Specific requirements:

1. Affiliated Sciences and Math


2. Area I. Cell and Molecular Biology


Free choice among Area I courses in the Biology curriculum Credits: 3-4

3. Area II. Genetics


  • Free choice among Area II courses in the Biology curriculum Credits: 3-5

4. Area III. Physiology


  • Free choice among Area III courses in the Biology curriculum Credits: 3

5. Area IV. Biodiversity


  • BIO 465 Evolution is required plus 3 additional credits chosen from the courses in the Biology curriculum Credits: 6-7

7. Primary and Secondary Producers


Choose at least one course labeled A and one labeled P from Areas I-V in the Biology curriculum. These courses can also satisfy requirements in Areas I-V for the basic Biology major and so do not add to the number of credits needed beyond the basic Biology major.

9. Field Experience


Choose at least one course from this list. This course can also satisfy one of the areas above.

10. Capstone


Choose one of these courses:

11. Writing requirement (students in the Honors program are exempt)


One course required. Choose from the following courses*:

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